We hear more and more about precision farming, multi-spectral sensors, management of crop intervention in relation to the NDVI analysis and the state of stress or well-being of the vines. In this regard there is the need to simplify the concepts which are apparently complex but in reality are extremely simple.
Numerous scientific studies have highlighted the close correlation between the quality of the grapes and the health of the plants or better the plants with high vegetative-productive balance can express an optimal maturation of the grapes for the wine project. Here the concept of stress plays a key role, what is meant by stress? A plant which is weak, badly supplied with water is growing in a state of stress. We will take as an example the case of precision viticulture outlining the advantages and strengths in relation to the results that can be achieved in terms of wine production. A study on Dubordieu and Lavigne, aging atypical white wines (“Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin” of the University of Bordeaux) relates the aging potential of wines to the content of nitrogen in musts as well as the presence of glutathione, a tripeptide natural constituent of many plant with antioxidant and detoxifying. The screws too weak, badly fed nitrogen damage grapes poor in glutathione. The water shortage in summer and / or competition cover cropping, development of surface roots which weaken the plant and promote the character premox of dry white wines. To the authors it appears crucial to ensure sufficient force to the vine with a nitrogen supply which must not be limiting especially considering that the grapes rich in available nitrogen (> 200mg / L) are always richer in aroma precursors and poor in phenolic compounds. Scientific evidence shows that the metabolism of the plant stunted and limited by water stress and / or nutrient is an insurmountable obstacle to the expression of the variety, the affirmation of an identity sensory wine of a variety in a given environment and the implementation of natural defense mechanisms and interaction with the active ingredients distributed in defense programs whatever they may be. Numerous projects, both private and governmental initiatives have been aimed at rationalizing agricultural practices that characterize the management of a vineyard in order to lessen its environmental impact and get to measure the sustainability of all company activities. In particular, management through agronomic aspects of plant protection, fertility, control of desertification and design of the rural landscape, have a significant impact on the environmental balance sheet of a company and a major impact on the reputation of a trade mark on the market considering the growth the market for organic products, biodynamic, vegan etc.grows often results in speculation of aggressive marketing that leverages the fears of uninformed consumers left to fend for impromptu arguments of self-styled environmentalists. This must be countered for the good of the industry through the development of initiatives that aim to affirm a sustainable viticulture, to analyze the culture and its ecological links on more levels with the territory, through the acquisition of environmental information and physiological ( aka “complex ecological networks).
Use of the Drone with Multi-spectral sensors for Precision Viticulture
With the development of a precision viticulture, ie monitoring vineyards with UAVs, in different areas of the areal you vegetative production variability can be characterized and business decisions in agronomic defense and management of this variability can be supported. Vigor maps in the different phases of the vine development will be supplied, acquired remotely, using multi-spectral cameras mounted on drones. This information in addition to providing directions on the nutritional status of the vineyard, can be the basis for the construction of the prescription maps for equipment or in any case for a modulation of farming operations, in particular for fertilizing and for the work of canopy management with huge benefits for the company in terms of both economic and environmental advantages.
Regarding the Phytoiatry, the objective is manifold. You can get a company stratification according to risk areas to detect pest risk for different diseases, in particular where the data will be crossed with the information according to landscape (slope, aspect, sunlight) and with accuarte weather; it is also increasingly important in terms of ecology, to increase accuracy in the pesticides, adjusting speed, flow and pressure variations of the shape of the canopy. The acquisition of multi-spectral data can represent, moreover, a starting point for calculations regarding the presence of metabolites induced by infection of pathogenic incipient not visible to the naked eye or correlations with the quality of the productions with regards to the oenological target, and then develop a specific know-how for the particular application. These applications represent only a part of a larger project which aims to correlate the variability of multispectral data with the soil variability, hydraulics, agronomic management in order to obtain predictive models of the physiological behavior of the plants
Arturo Erbaggio (Doctor Agronomist, Oenologist, Italy)
Arturo Erbaggio: After graduating in Agricultural Science and Technology at the University of Naples and Viticulture and Enology at the University of Foggia Professor Erbaggio began a series of cooperations as a consultant and expert in the wine sector. Active in the field of research and experimentation in viticulture and enology through cooperations with universities for the preparation and management of experimental fields and microvinifications with subsequent analytical detection and rationalization of the results obtained. Contractor for DuPont de Nemours and Syngenta in the area of testing of new crop protection products in forestry and horticulture, with the role of performance detector (incidence and severity) of the active ingredients on plant matrices. Since 2009 lecturer at the Metropolitan Park of the Hills of Naples, Campania – Elements of viticulture and enology and pathology of vines to wine makers within the project of characterization and optimization of the white varieties of the Park. Since 2014 professor of the Course in Wine Business, third and fourth edition at the University of Salerno Management & Information Technology – Elements of viticulture and enology, enography. Currently consultant viticulturist and enologist at leading farms in Campania where he is responsible for the production processes, from agronomic management of the vineyards to the wine process management, with special attention to training company workers.
Drone Solutions with Multi-spectral Cameras
The use of the Drone with multi-spectral cameras has become more and moer widespread enabling users to reach themost accurate and immediate results.
With these technologies you can the survey of the optical properties of crops through mobile systems mounted on drones. The DRONE must also be equipped with GPS receiver to connect the data collected from their position within the plot. Surveys with the DRONE are designed for use during the course of normal mechanized operations, so as to interfere as little as possible with the normal business planning. Surveys with Drone technologies in viticulture enable users to obtain a high spatial detail of the information, coupled with the enormous speed acquisition and analysis of the data.
The use of a Drone with Multi-spectral sensors grants:
- Territory knowledge
- Environmental Advantages
- Support for defence
- Continuous and constant Monitoring
- Aimed interventions
- Non-desruptive measures, which can be repeated on each plant in subsequent moments
- No contact with the cultivation
- Fast interventions also from moving vehicles
- Financial benefits
- Multinationals seen as partners no longer only as suppliers
- Benefits for consumers